Saturday, August 1, 2015

Common plastics and their uses

Polyester (PES) – Fibers, textiles.
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) – Carbonated drinks bottles, peanut butter jars, plastic film, microwavable packaging.
Polyethylene (PE) – Wide range of inexpensive uses including supermarket bags, plastic bottles.
High-density polyethylene (HDPE) – Detergent bottles, milk jugs, and molded plastic cases.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) – Plumbing pipes and guttering, shower curtains, window frames, flooring.
Polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) (Saran) – Food packaging.
Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) – Outdoor furniture, siding, floor tiles, shower curtains, clamshell packaging.
Polypropylene (PP) – Bottle caps, drinking straws, yogurt containers, appliances, car fenders (bumpers), plastic pressure pipe systems.
Polystyrene (PS) – Packaging foam/"peanuts", food containers, plastic tableware, disposable cups, plates, cutlery, CD and cassette boxes.
High impact polystyrene (HIPS) -: Refrigerator liners, food packaging, vending cups.
Polyamides (PA) (Nylons) – Fibers, toothbrush bristles, tubing, fishing line, low strength machine parts: under-the-hood car engine parts or gun frames.
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) – Electronic equipment cases (e.g., computer monitors, printers, keyboards), drainage pipe.
Polyethylene/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PE/ABS) – A slippery blend of PE and ABS used in low-duty dry bearings.
Polycarbonate (PC) – Compact discs, eyeglasses, riot shields, security windows, traffic lights, lenses.
Polycarbonate/Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PC/ABS) – A blend of PC and ABS that creates a stronger plastic. Used in car interior and exterior parts, and mobile phone bodies.
Polyurethanes (PU) – Cushioning foams, thermal insulation foams, surface coatings, printing rollers (Currently 6th or 7th most commonly used plastic material, for instance the most commonly used plastic in cars).

Plastic-A Brief Explanation

Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can bemolded into solid objects of diverse shapes. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural.[2] Plasticity is the general property of all materials that are able to irreversibly deform without breaking, but this occurs to such a degree with this class of moldable polymers that their name is an emphasis on this ability.
Due to their relatively low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of products, from paper clips to spaceships. 

They have already displaced many traditional materials,such as  wood,  stone, horn and bone,  leather, paper, metal, glass, and ceramic, in most of their former uses. In developed countries, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and another third in buildings such as piping used inplumbing or vinyl siding.[3] Other uses include automobiles (up to 20% plastic[3]), furniture, and toys.[3] In the developing world, the ratios may be different - for example, reportedly 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging.[3] Plastics have many uses in the medical field as well, to include polymer implants, however the field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic material, but rather the more generic meaning of the word plasticity in regards to the reshaping of flesh.

The world's first fully synthetic plastic was bakelite, invented in New York in 1907 by Leo Baekeland[4] who coined the term 'plastics'.[5] Many chemists contributed to the materials scienceof plastics, including Nobel laureate Hermann Staudinger who has been called "the father ofpolymer chemistry" and Herman Mark, known as "the father of polymer physics".[6] The success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of very large molecules. Toward the end of the century, one approach to this problem was met with wide efforts toward recycling.


Monday, September 20, 2010

PLASTICS



                                                    For more details visit trendshere.com

Friday, September 17, 2010

ABBREVIATIONS OF PLASTICS

Plastics Abbreviations
 ABS acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
ASA acrylate-styrene-acrylonitrile
ATH aluminium trihydrate
BDS butadiene-styrene block copolymer
BMC bulk moulding compound
BOPP biaxially oriented polypropylene
BR butadiene rubber
CA cellulose acetate
CAB cellulose acetate-butyrate
CAP celluse acetate propionate
CE cellulose
CMC carboxymethyl celluse
CN cellulose nitrate
CP cellulose propionate
CSM chopped strand mat (or) chlorosulphonated polyethylene (rubber)
DMC dough moulding compound
ECTFE ethylene chlorotrifluoro ethylene copolymer
EPDM ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (elastomer)
EPM ethylene-propylene rubber = EPR
EPR ethylene-propylene rubber = EPM
EPS expanded polystyrene
EVA ethylene vinyl acetate
EVOH ethylene vinyle achol
FEP fluorinated ethylene-propylene
FRP fibre reinforced polyester/plastics
GMT glass mat thermoplastic
GPPS general purpose polystyrene
GRP glass reinforced plastic
HDPE high density polyethylene
HEMA hydroxyethyl methacrylate polymer
HIPS high impact polystyrene = TPS
LCP liquid crystal polymer = SRP
LDPE low density polyethylene
LLDPE linear low density polyethylene
MBS methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer
MDPE medium density polyethylene
MF melamine formaldehyde
NBR nitrile rubber = acrylonitrile butadiene rubber
NR natural rubber
OPP oriented polypropylene
PA polyamide = nylon
PA 11 nylon 11
PA 12 nylon 12
PA 46 nylon 46
PA 6 nylon 6
PA 610 nylon 610
PA 66 nylon 66
PA 66/610 nylon 66/610 copolymer
PAA polaryl amide
PAI polyamide imide
PAN polyacrylonitrile
PB polybutylene
PBT polybutylene terephthalate = PTMT
PC polycarbonate
PE polyethylene
PEBA polyether block amide
PEEK polyetheretherketone
PEEL polyester elastomer
PEI polyester imide
PEK polyetherketone
PES polyether sulphone
PETG PET copolymer
PETP polyethylene terephthalate
PF phenol formaldehyde
PFA perfluoro alkoxyl alkane
PHB polyhydroxybutyrate
PI polyimide
PIR polyisocyanurate rigid (foam)
PMMA polymethyl methacrylate
PMP polymethyl pentene
POM polyoxymethylene
PP polypropylene
PPE polyphenylene ether
PPO polyphenylene oxide
PPS polyphenylene sulphide
PPSS polyphenylene sulphide sulphone
PS polystyrene
PSU polysulphone
PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene
PTMT polytetramethylene terephthalate = PBT
PUR polyurethane
PVA polyvinyl acetate
PVB polyvinyl butytral (butyrate)
PVC polyvinyl chloride
PVCC chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
PVCP polyvinyl chloride plasticised
PVCU polyvinyl chloride unplasticised
PVDC polyvinylidene chloride
PVDF polyvinylidene flouride
PVF polyvinylflouride
PVOH polyvinyl alcohol
SAN styrene acrylonitrile (copolymer)
SBR styrene butadiene rubber
SBS styrene-butadiene-styrene (block copolymer)
SEBS styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene
SIS styrene-isoprene-styrene
SMA styrene maleic anhydride
SMC sheet moulding compond
SRP self reinforcing polymer = LCP
TPE thermoplastic elastomer
TPO thermoplastic olefin (rubber)
TPR thermoplatic rubber
TPS toughened polystyrene = HIPS
TPU thermoplastic polyurethane (rubber) = TPUR
TPUR thermoplastic polyurethane (rubber) = TPU
TPX* polymethyl pentene copolymer
UF urea formaldehyde
UHMWPE ultra high molecular weight PE
VC vinyl chloride = VCM
VCM vinyl chloride monomer = VC
XLPE cross-linked polyethylene

BIBILIOGRAPHY

http://www.bpf.co.uk

Sunday, September 12, 2010

APPLICTIONS OF PLASTICS


                                                           

CONTENTS

     S.No   Title                                  

1                introduction
2                Poly ethylene(high density)
3                poly ethylene(low density)
4                poly propylene
5                poly styrene
6                poly ether ether ketone
7                poly methyl methacrylate
8                poly acetals
9                nylon
10            poly phenylene sulphide
11            poly vinyl chloride
12            phenolic formaldehyde
13            melamine formaldehyde
14            urea formaldehyde
15            epoxy resins
16            poly urethane
17            unsaturated polyester
18            silicones


























INTRODUCTION

             Plastics have been important in many applications to be listed here.         "Thermoplastics,"  & "Thermosetting Plastics," list hundreds of commercial applications that have been found for specific plastics.
Engineering plastics are tough plastics that can withstand high loads or stresses. They can be machined and remain dimensionally stable. They are typically used in the construction of machine parts and automobile components. Important examples of this class of plastics include Poly ethylene(high density)poly ethylene(low density) poly propylene poly styrene poly ether ether ketone poly methyl methacrylate poly acetals, poly phenylene sulphide poly vinyl chloride phenolic formaldehyde melamine formaldehyde urea formaldehyde epoxy resins poly urethane, unsaturated polyester silicones
The structure of their giant chains makes these plastics highly resistant to shock, and gives them a characteristic toughness.
Plastics are almost always electrically insulating, and for this reason they have found use as essential components of electrical and electronic equipment (including implants in the human body).
























POLYETHYLENE(HIGH DENSITY);


Chemical drums,

jerricans,

carboys,

toys,

picnic ware,

household and kitchenware,

cable insulation,

carrier bags,

food wrapping material

pipes for irrigation


POLYETHYLENE(LOW DENSITY);

Squeeze bottles,

toys,

carrier bags,

high frequency insulation,

chemical tank linings,

heavy duty sacks,

general packaging,

gas,

water pipes.

Sports net





POLYPROPYLENE;

Coffee pot and washing m/c parts,

 replacement for die castings,

drink vending machines,

microwave components

radio

television casing

agitators

drain tubes

control knobs

tool boxes


POLYSTYRENE;

Yoghurt pots,

refrigerator linings,

vending cups,

bathroom cabinets,

toilet seats and tanks,

closures,

instrument control knobs.

Automatic reflectors

Toys

Crystal wares



POLYETHERETHERKETONE;

components for cars,

 aircraft,

 industrial pumps,

valves and seals,

silicon wafer carriers,

Connectors

sterilisable surgical instruments in the medical implants market

Rollers

gears

thrust washers



POLYMETHY METHACRYLATE;


Displays on aircraft

Tumblers

Wine glass

Lighting fixtures

Furniture

Trays

Bowls

Water jugs

Boxes

Mirrors


POLYACETALS;

Business m/c parts,

small pressure vessels,

aerosol valves,

coil formers,

clock and watch parts,

nuclear engineering components

plumbing systems,

shoe components.


NYLON;

Nylon fibres are used in textiles,

fishing line and carpets.

Nylon films is used for food packaging,

offering toughness and low gas permeability,

for boil-in-the-bag food packaging.

Tool handles

Conveyor buckets

Container linings

Castors

Furniture fasteners


POLYPHENYLENE  SULPHIDE;

Chemical pumps,

hair dryer grills,

non-stick cookware,

medical equipment,

lamp bulb bases,

Television

automotive components.

Brush holders

Engine sensors

Brake components


POLY VINYL CHLORIDE;

Window frames,

Drainage pipe,

Water service pipe,

Medical devices,

Blood storage bags,

Cable and wire insulation,

Resilient flooring,

Roofing membranes,

Stationary,

Automotive interiors and seat coverings,

Fashion and footwear,

Packaging, cling film,

Credit cards,

Synthetic leather

Other coated fabrics


PHENOLIC FORMALDEHYDE;

Ashtrays,

Lamp holders,

Bottle caps,

Saucepan handles,

Domestic plugs and switches,

welding tongs and electrical iron parts.

Tube bases

Refrigerator controls

Telephone handsets



MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE;

Decorative laminates,

lighting fixtures,

dinnerware,

heavy duty electrical equipment,

 laminating resins,

surface coatings,

bottle caps,

toilet seats.


UREA FORMALDEHYDE;

Ashtrays,

lamp holders,

bottle caps,

saucepan handles,

domestic plugs and switches,

welding tongs

electrical iron parts.

Auto coil tops

Castor wheels

Disk brake piston



EPOXY RESINS;

Adhesives,

coatings,

encapsulation,

electrical components,

cardiac pacemakers,

aerospace applications.

Doors

Coating for drums

Battery casing

Inserts & switches



POLY URETHANE;

Printing rollers,

solid tyres,

wheels,

shoe heels,

car bumpers

pipe seals

golf balls

friction drives & belts

cusion

steering wheels


UNSATURATED POLYESTER;

Boat hulls,

building panels,

lorry cabs,

compressor housing,

embedding, coating



SILICONES;

Heat transfer fluid

Masonary water repellants

Textile fibre lubricants

Additives in waxes & polish

Exhaust pipe

Coating for metal chimney

Electrical applications

Plastic film label stock

Oil pan gaskets

Diving masks


CONCLUSION;

            This project outline work is used for the future engineers & need for the factories. It is a great opportunity to gather some information from various sources. This is a good experience to do a project

            The project helps us to do some project for the organization as well.















                                                            BIBILIOGRAPHY



*http://science.jrank.org/pages/5323/Plastics-Applications.html,12-9-10,0:30am-2.30am


*http://www.bpf.co.uk/Plastipedia/Applications/Default.aspx,10-9-10,6:00pm-9:00pm

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

HISTORY/TIME LINE OF PLASTICS

HISTORY OF PLASTIC

1284 – First recorded mention of The Horners Company of London, with
horn and tortoiseshell as the predominant early natural plastic.1823 –
Macintosh uses rubber gum to waterproof cotton and the ‘mac’ is born

1845 – Bewley designs extruder for gutta percha

1850 - First submarine telegraph cable in gutta percha laid between
Dover and Calais

1862 – Display of Parkesine, predecessor of celluloid (cellulose
nitrate), at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London

1872 – Hyatt brothers patented first plastics injection moulding machine

1885 – George Eastman Kodak patents machine for producing continuous
photographic film based on cellulose nitrate.

1880 – Fashion for long hair leads to cellulose nitrate replacing horn
as the preferred material for combs

1890 – Thermoforming introduced and used to make babies rattles from
cellulose nitrate

1892 – Viscose silk (rayon) developed by Cross and Bevan  (Chardonnet Silk)

1898 – Beginning of mass production of rpm gramophone records from shellac

1899 - Krische and Spittler in Germany awarded patent for Casein
Plastic from milk. Artefacts introduced at the Plastics Universal
Exhibition in 1900

1909 – Casein plastics, derived from milk, developed by Erinoid.

1910 – stockings made of viscose (CA) begin to be manufactured in Germany

1915 – Queen Mary sees casein products at the British Industries Fair
and orders several pieces of jewellery made from it

1916 – Rolls Royce begins to use phenol formaldehyde in its car
interiors and boasts about it

1919 – Eichengrun produce first cellulose acetate moulding powder

1921 – Beginning of rapid growth of phenolic mouldings especially for
electrical insulation, with addition of phenolic laminates in 1930

1922 – Staudinger publishes his work that recognises that plastics are
composed of long chain molecules – leading to Nobel prize in 1935

1924 – Rossiter at British Cyanide develops urea thiourea formaldehyde
resins, subsequently commercialised as the first water white
transparent thermosetting moulding powder.

1926 – Harrods hosts first display of new coloured thermosetting
plastic tableware produced by Brookes and Adams, The Streetly
Manufacturing Company and Thomas De La Rue and Co.

1926 – Eckert and Ziegler patent first commercial modern plastics
injection moulding machine.

1929 – Bakelite Ltd receives its largest ever order for phenolic
moulding powder for the casing of the Siemens telephone

1930 – ‘Scotch’ tape, the first transparent sticky tape invented in US
by 3M Company

1932 – Screw per-plasticisation in injection moulding patented

1933 - BPF founded

1933 – Fawcett and Gibson at ICI discover polyethylene

1933 – Crawford at ICI develops first commercial synthesis of
poly(methyl methacrylate)

1935 – Troester in Germany produce first extruder designed for thermoplastics.

1935 – Carothers and DuPont patent nylon

1936 - First production of aircraft canopies made from ‘Perspex’.

1937 - Columbo and Pasquetti in Italy produce first twin screw extruder machine

1937 – First commercial production of polystyrene by IG Farben, Germany

1938 – Full scale production of nylon 6 fibre begins in United States

1938 – First toothbrush with nylons tufts manufactured

1938 – Plunkett (DuPont) discovers PTFE

1939 – First commercial production of polyethylene in UK by ICI

1939 - Outbreak of war – strategic stockpiles, plastics in war

1940s - Use of polyethylene in radar

1940 – First production of PVC in UK

1940 – DuPont introduces polyacrylonitrile (PAN), an early engineering product

1941 – Whinfield and Dickson, of the Calico Printer's Association of
Manchester, patent "polyethylene terephthalate" (PET); followed by the
creation of the first polyester fiber called Terylene.

1942 – ‘Super Glue’ (methyl cyanoacrylate) first discovered by Dr
Harry Coover, Eastman Kodak

1943 – First pilot plant for polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) ; to be
marketed under trade mark ‘Teflon’

1945 - The production of LDPE the Sqezy bottle by Monsanto caused a
rapid expansion of the industry, with containers produced to replace
glass bottles for shampoos and liquid soaps.

1947 – Formica melamine faced decorative laminates introduced into the UK

1948 – Acrylonitrile-butadiene-
styrene (ABS) produced

1948 – George deMestral invents Velcro, patented in 1955

1948 – Introduction of 12” long playing records made from polyvinyl
chloride (pvc)

1949 – First Airfix self-assembly model produced, made of polystyrene

1949 – High impact polystyrene introduced as a commercial plastic

1949 – Launch in US of Tupperware made from low density polyethylene

1949 – ‘Lycra’ based on polyurethane, invented by DuPont

1950s – the polyethylene bag makes its first appearance

1950s – Introduction of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) copolymers

1950 - ICI opens new factory at Redcar to produce Terylene

1951 - Festival of Britain

1953 – Commercialisation of polyester fibres introduces the concept of
‘drip dry’ and ‘non-iron’

1954 - Polystyrene foam (introduced by Dow Chemical Co.)

1955 – First production of high density polyethylene in UK

1956 – Reliant Regal 111, first commercially successful all
glass-reinforced-plastic bodied car goes on sale

1956 – Eero Saarinen’s Tulip Chair launched, consisting of seat made
of glass-fibre-reinforced plastic.

1956 – DuPont files patents for first acetals (POM)

1957 – The hoop is reinvented as the Hula Hoop by Knerr & Medlin,
Wham-O Toy Company

1957 – First production of polypropylene by Montecatini using
Ziegler-Natta catalysts

1958 – First production of polycarbonates (Bayer and General Electric)

1958 – Lego patents its stud and block coupling system and produces
toys of cellulose acetate, later Acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene
polymer.

1959 – Barbie Doll unveiled by Mattel at American International Toy Fair

Early 1960s – introduction of water based acrylic paints

1960 – Ethylene-vinyl acetate co-polymers launched by DuPont

1962 – DuPont launches polyimide films and varnishes

1962 – Silicone gel breast implants pioneered successfully

1965 - Kevlar® is first developed by DuPont

1966 – Blow moulding of fuel tanks introduced

1967 – Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ‘Blow’ chair designed by Scolari, De
Pas and Lomazzifor manufactured by Znaotta

1969 – Neil Armstrong plants a nylon flag on the moon.

1970 - First Yellow HDPE pressure pipes for gas introduced into UK by
Wavin/British Gas.

1973 - Polyethylene terephthalate beverage bottles introduced

1976 - Plastics in its great variety of forms becomes the most used
type of material in the world

1977 – Polyaryletheretherketone (PEEK) was first prepared by ICI

1979 – Introduction of first commercial mobile/ portable ‘phones

1979 - First PVC-U double glazed windows installed


 1980 – First production of linear low density polyethylene

1980 - First Blue HDPE pressure pipes for potable water introduced into UK.

1982 – First artificial heart made mainly of polyurethane, introduced
implanted in a human.

1983 – The slim plastic Swatch watch made of 51 mainly plastic components

1983 – ICI and Bayer launch PEEK, PPS (polyphenyene sulphide), and PES
(polyether sulphone)

1987 - BASF in Germany produces a polyacetylene that has twice the
electrical conductivity of copper.

1988 – Introduction of triangular recycling symbols relating to plastics

1989 - First light-emitting polymers (poly-ethyne) discovered in Cambridge

1990 – ICI launches Biopol, the first commercially available
biodegradable plastic

1991 – Dyson’s vacuum cleaner launched in Japan

1994 – Smart car with lightweight flexible integrally coloured
polycarbonate panels introduced

1998 – Free standing Zanussi Oz fridge, with insulation and outer
skins made in one process from polyurethane foam introduced

2000s Nano-Technology applied to  polymer and composit applications

2000 - First commercial metallocene catalysed polyolefins introduced.

2001 - iPod dreamed up by Tony Fadell, an independent inventor,
developed by Apple Computers

2005 – NASA explores the advantages of a polyethylene based material
RFX1, as the material for the spaceship that will send man to Mars

2005 – Polycond project established to look at the potential of
conductive polymers

2008 – Airbus 380, comprising 22% carbon-fibre reinforced plastics
flies into Heathrow

2009 - Boeing 787 (nicknames 'Boeing's Plastic Dream') comes into
service, its skin is made up of 100% Plastic composites with plastic
making up 50% of all materials in the plane